Welcome to Part III of emergency first aid. Remember that these are tips if you are in an emergency and do not have access to a hospital. You should always take anyone who is hurt to a hospital if you have that option available and remember to always call 911, do not hesitate because a few seconds could be the difference between life and death or coherent or vegetable. All right lets jump right in and get out boots muddy.
Electrical Injuries – Symptoms: Thermal burns, usually there will be a entry wound and an exit wound with lightening. The patient will most likely go into shock, they will experience breathing difficulties and cessations or could possibly have no pulse. Possible Condition: Electrical burns. Electric shock. Course of Action: Do not approach the victim until you know for sure that the victim does not have electricity still running through his body. Immediately cover the wounds with sterile, dry dressings and bandages. Treat victim for shock and administer CPR if needed.
Frostbite – Symptoms: The part of the body that is frostbitten will have a loss of sensation. The skin will appear waxy. It will also be cold and white, yellow, blue or flushed. Possible Condition: Parts of your body have been exposed to extremely low temperatures for an extended period of time. Course of Action: Remove any accessories from the area that has been exposed and is frostbitten. Immediately soak the affected area in a warm bath (make sure the water is no more then 105 degrees F) until color and warmth returns. Dress frostbitten area with sterile dressings and bandages. If your hands and feet are frostbitten place the gauze between the toes and fingers. A tip to help warm up the hands is to place them under your armpits; and if possible place your frostbitten feet on another persons stomach. It is very important to remember absolutely DO NOT RUB FROSTBITTEN SKIN.
Fungal Infections – Symptoms: The skin that is infected especially the feet and groin will be covered with irritating rash, blisters, swelling, itching, and scales. Possible Condition: Fungal Infection growing on body. Course of Action: Make sure to keep the infected area clean and dry at all times. A great cure for a fungal infection is to expose the infected area to sunlight as much as possible. Also make sure not to scratch the area. Another form of treatment is ointments, and powders.
Heat-Related Illnesses – Symptoms: You will experience cramps, dizziness, weakness, nausea, pale skin, you will be flushed, your skill will be moist and cool, or ashen. You will also experience a rapid but weak pulse. Possible Condition: If the victim is experiencing cramps get them to a cool area, give them cool water to drink; and massage and stretch affected muscles. If the victim is experiencing heat exhaustion then move them to a cool place as well; make sure to loosen the clothing so its not touching their skin. Then apply wet towels directly to the skin, fan victims body; give cool water to drink. For heat stroke, follow the same steps for heat exhaustion. Make sure to make them rest on their side; absolutely do not let the victim to continue their normal activities for rest of the day and then have them re-evaluate them the next day before allowing to return to any physical activities.
Hypothermia – Symptoms: The victim will have a glassy stare, they will shiver, and experience numbness. They also may become unconscious. Possible Condition: The victims entire body’s temperature will loss heat and drop below safe temp levels. Course of Action: First and foremost remove any wet clothing from the victims body and get them dry ASAP. You will want to gradually warm the victim by adding layers gradually. Once they have reached a safe temp put them in warm, dry clothing and have them move to a warm, dry place. Once you have moved them to a warm environment give them warm liquids but make sure they do not contain any alcohol or caffeine. Usually most people think of tea but make sure its a non caffeinated tea. The reason i keep saying gradually is cause you do not want to warm the victim to quickly or submerse them in a warm bath because it could cause heart problems.
Insect and Scorpion Stings – Symptoms: There will be extreme pain in effected area. The victim also might have an allergic reaction. They also may have excessive salivating from the mouth this will be associated with the venom from spider and scorpions bites/stings. Possible Condition: This may be caused by bee stings, spider bites, scorpion stings, etc. Course of Action: If the victim has been stung then first you will want to remove the stinger with either tweezers, your fingernails, or you can run a credit card over your skin. Wash the area with warm water and soap. Cover with a bandage and keep it clean, then apply ice to reduce swelling. After the sting immediately check for anaphylactic shock. If the victim is stung by a scorpion or bit by a spider, wash the wound and apply an ice pack. If available and victim needs it give them antivenin.
I hope you learned some new first aid tips reading this post. Remember that only use these tips if you are in an emergency situation and can not access a hospital. Always call 911 or take the victim to an emergency room if that option is available. Please leave any comments or questions below, also don’t forget to click on the button at the bottom of the screen to follow my blog and stay up to date on all new posts. Thank you and hope to have you back soon.
Today I wanna go over some basic first aid that you can use on yourself or on your companion if you are not near a hospital. These are tips should only be used if you can not reach a hospital, a hospital should always be your first option if its available.
Allergic Reaction – Symptoms: Skin swells and turns red. Hives, itching, weakness, nausea/stomach cramps, vomitting, difficulty breathing, obstructed airway, low blood pressue, and shock. Possible Condition: Allergic reaction/anaphlactic shock(anaphylaxis). Course of Action: Check airway/ move victim into the most comfortable position possible so they can breath unassisted. Keep victim calm, Administer antihistamine. If you have an epinephrine auto-injector in your first aid kit you should inject it if allergic reaction is severe. It is always a good idea to have an epinephrine auto-injector as part of your first aid kit because you never know what you or your companions will be allergic to in the wild, it may be something that you never knew you had.
Bleeding-Surface – Symptoms: Blood running down body part or blood pooling on clothing, or blood spurting from a wound. Possible Conidition: Torn or cut blood vessel or punction wound. Coure of Action: First thing you want to do is cover the open wound with a sterile dressing and bandages to control bleeding and prevent any sort of infection to set in. If wound requires continuous pressure and you cannot hold it there apply an elastic bandage or tourniqut the nearest artiry. Remember that if you apply a tourniqut make sure that you get help as soon as possible or the wounded person could loose the limb. To apply elastic bandage place end of bandage against skin and roll it around wounded limb while gently stretching it, start from the farthest area from the heart. When finished, tape or tie in place. Make sure that you do not wrap it to tight that you cut off circulation. If blood starts to seep thru bandage to not remove old dressing just add more. Do not completely close wound off from the air, except for certain chest and abdominal wounds(I.E. sucking chest wounds or gut shots).
Bleeding Internally – Symptoms: Vomitting or coughing up large amounts of blood. Bruised, tender, swollen, or hard flesh. Severe pain/inability to move injured body part. Weak, rapid, pulse. Pale, bluish skin or cool moist skin. Excessive thirst. Confusion, drowsiness, or loss of consiousness. Possible Condition: Injury to a large blood vessel and deep muscle tissue, bleeding beneath the skin. Course of Action: Apply Ice on and off wound for 20 minute intervals. Wrap in damp cloth to prevent ice from being directly on skin for long periods of time. Keep victim still and comfortable and elevate injury if it does not cause excessive pain to the injured person.
Blisters – Symptoms: Large and painful fluid filled sac beneath the skin. Possible Condition: Burn causing blister or excessive friction to a concentrated area. Course of Action: If the blister forms and there is a small chance that the area the blister is on will come in contact with abrasive materials then leave it alone to heal on its own. Never ever pop a blister that has been caused by a burn. If the blister is on the bottom of the foot where it will encounter abrasive materials then clean the area around blister and use a sterile needle to puncture blister and drain fluids. Make sure to apply a sterile bandage once all fluid is expelled from blister and if the bandage is wet from fluid make sure to change right away to ward off any infections.
Broken Bones – Symptoms: Sudden, serious deformity. Bone sticking out of skin, Bruising or swelling. Unable to move a specific body part with out severe pain. Victim heard a loud pop, crack, or snap sound. The sensation of bones rubbing together. Injuried area is numb or cold. Possible Condition: Broken bone or fraction or compound fracture. Dislocation. Course of Action: Immobilze the injuried body part as it was found. Absolutely do not apply a splint unless you have to move the victim to get help, if you must apply a splint do so above the fractured area, and do not manipulate injuried area. SOme options for splinting are, splint injured area to another body part; making a soft splint or sling for injured arm, wrist, or hand; and splinting a fracture with wood, metal, folded magazines, or anything else that is rigid and offers a lot of protection and support. Apply ice to the injured area, but make sure to have a cloth barrier between ice and the skin. While applying ice to injured area elevate if possible without causing great pain.
Those are just a few quick tips on some basic first aid. Please remember that it is always best to seek a medical professional first but the tips will help if you are in a remote area or help will not arrive fast enough. Please keep an eye out for more first aid tips to come.
Thank you for joining me today, I hope I was able to teach you something new. Remember to leave any questions or comments and also click on the follow button at the bottom of the screen so you don’t miss out on new blog posts.